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Fermi-Dirac statistics

The Fermi-Dirac statistics is a method from quantum physics that describes the expected number of fermions that have a certain energy.

 


Explanation

It applies to identical particles with half-integer spin in a system with thermodynamic equilibrium. Additionally, the particles in this system are assumed to have negligible mutual interaction. The number of particles n in the state i can then be calculated with

where

    gi Degeneracy
    εi Energy of the state
    µ Chemical potential
    kB Boltzmann constant
    T Temperature

The Pauli exclusion principle states that two or more identical fermions cannot simultaneously occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system. This applies, for example, to the electrons that provide electrical conduction in metals and semiconductors

 


Additional information

It is named after Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac, each of whom discovered the method independently in 1926.

 


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