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A phonon is a quantumparticle, that describes the quantum of energy in vibrations that occur in periodic arrangements of atoms or molecules.



Phonons form an elastic wave that indicates an excited state in a solid or liquid substance. Phonons are bosons with a spin of 0, ±1, ±2, ... etc.



Phonons are massless particles, but they do have a momentum and a frequency. A phonon has the properties of a wave, but also the properties of a particle. It has a transverse or longitudinal wave motion.


Additional information

The concept of the phonon was developed by the Soviet physicist Igor Tamm in 1930. The name "phonon" is attributed to Yakov Frenkel.


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