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Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated by charges, currents, and changes of the fields.



The four equations of electromagnetism are

(1) (2)
(3) (4)

and the two material equations are

(5) (6)


    E Electric field
    D Electric displacement field
    B Magnetic flux density
    H Magnetic field
    J Current density
    P Polarization
    M Magnetization
    ε0 Electric constant
    µ0 Magnetic constant
    ∇⋅ Divergence
    ∇× Curl
    ρ Charge density
    t Time



The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879) is known for his four equations that form the basis of electrodynamics.

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