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The polarization density P is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material.



It is a vector quantity that plays a role in electromagnetic field theory and thus also in the Maxwell equations.


Example 1

Polarization occurs in the Maxwell equation of the electric field strength


    E Electric field strength
    ε0 Electric field constant
    D Electric displacement
    P Polarization



This concept was introduced by the British physicist Michael Faraday (1791 - 1867) while studying the behaviour of electrical insulators in electrostatic fields.

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