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Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.



The theory of thermodynamics can be described by four laws.

  • Zeroth law
If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

  • First law
The energy of a closed system is constant.

  • Second law
Thermal energy cannot be converted into other forms of energy to any desired degree.

  • Third law
The absolute zero of the temperature is unreachable.



The first successful theory was developed by the French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824.

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